1) It's not quite correct to write, as you do, that you need to have been member of an A-kasse for one year before you can receive Unemployment benefits ("dagpenge").
As an PhD student you have two options regarding membership of an A-kasse:
Membership in A-kasse after graduate rule
You can become free member of an A-kasse as a graduate, according to the special graduate rule. In this case you dont need to have been member before you apply for dagpenge.
It is the education in it self that qualify you to receive dagpenge. However as graduate you are entitled to receive only 71,5% of the normal "dagpenge" amount. If you have dependent children it is 82%.
However if you have not been member for at least 1 year when you graduate, you must accept a 1 month quarantine with dagpenge.
Paid membership in A-kasse, and getting higher amount in dagpenge
Because you as an PhD student also have a "work contract", you can instead decide to have a normal paid membership, like other workers have.
In this case you need to have been member for at least 1 year before you can apply for dagpenge. And furthermore you must meet an income-requirement.
The income-requirement says that you must have had an income (before tax) of at least DKK 228,348 (in 2018) during the last 3 years (in total).
Only income obtained during membership periods of an A-kasse can be included.
And regardless of what your monthly income is, you can only count a maximum of DKK 19,029 per month.
This means that regardless of how high salary you have, you always need to have been working for at least 1 year for being eligible for Unemployment benefits ("Dagpenge"). 12x19,029=228,348.
If you earn less than DKK 19,029 every month you must have been member for longer than 1 year, maybe 13 or 14 months depending on you income. It has to be 228,348.
2) If you lived in Britain prior to moving to Denmark, the new rule/residense requirement that will come into effect from January 1, 2019, should not be a problem for you. You will have same right as people who have lived in Denmark all their life.
The only insecurity in this relation, is that Britain will leave EU - we dont know exactly when and what consequences will be according the the social security rights. But we must assume that stay in Britain prior to Brexit
still will be regarded as stay in EU, even though it is no longer an EU-country.
The new rule applies for all people that apply for dagpenge after January 1, 2019. When you signed up for A-kasse has no relevance in this regard.
3) I can see that you work with health/medicine related subjects, so regarding choice of A-kasse, I will only recommend two for you to choose between. The first one called "Akademikernes" is the most popular choice among traditional medicine students and doctors. Akademikerne is the second cheapest A-kasse in Denmark,
so it will be a good choice if membership price is an subject of concern for you.
The other option is "MA A-kasse". Like Akademikernes A-kasse, MA A-kasse is only targeted high educated people, but MA covers more broad than Akademikernes. MA A-kasse has members within humanities, natural sciences, social sciences, IT, communication, health, psychology and pedagogy.
I would recommend you to ask your colleagues which A-kasse they are member of, but in any case I would recommend to become member of one of the two mentioned options, because it will be an advantage for you to become member in an A-kasse targeted high educated people.
You can sign up online as new member in the A-kasser recommended by us using these links:
If you need further help, please comment here.
Anders Weber, www.a-kasser.dk