Comment by Giancarlo:
Thanks Anders for the quick and clear responce, so as far I understood I have to sign up to the jobcenter. I am going to graduate approximately in the middle of August. Can I do it already now? And what does it entail? Moreover, do I have to apply for a U2 form before I graduate or just before leaving? Last question, once I have transferred the residence do I have to comply with the Danish or home country rules regarding the criteria to be elegible for the benefit?
Comment from A-kasser.dk:
you must be aware that Jobcenter and A-kasse are not the same, and they have different functions when you are unemployed.
In a broader sense you can say that, the A-kasse is responsible for paying you benefits ("dagpenge"), and the Jobcenter is responsible for checking that you are available for the labour market, searching jobs, attend to meetings at the Jobcenter etc.
You must sign up to A-kasse at latest 14 days after graduation in order to be eligible for Unemployment benefits ("dagpenge"). You should be able to sign up for A-kasse already now, just remember to tell the A-kasse that you want to sign up with graduate status. This ensures that you will have graduate rights after finishing study.
The membership will be free of cost until you graduate.
When you actually have graduated, and if you do not have a job immediately after graduation, then you must register - on day 1 after graduation - as unemployed at Jobnet.dk (or your local Jobcenter), and also apply for benefits ("dagpenge") in your A-kasse - i.e. tell them that you now want to have dagpenge.
So, it will also be ok to wait until right after graduation to sign up for A-kasse.
You will receive dagpenge from the day that you have registered as unemployed at Jobnet.dk, provided that you are eligible for dagpenge.
If you have been a student member of the A-kasse for at least 1 year before graduation then you can get dagpenge from day 1 after graduation. Otherwise you must accept a 1 month quarantine before you will begin to being paid dagpenge.
The u2 form has nothing to do with your graduate status/rights. So the U2 form you only need if/before you leave.
If you go to another EU-country with up to 3 months dagpenge from your danish A-kasse, then you must agree to any check and requirements of recipients of unemployment benefit in your new country as if you received the benefits there.
The authorities in the two countries will inform each other, so if you don't comply with the requirements in your new country, then the Jobcenter and your A-kasse in Denmark will be informed, and you can lose your rights to dagpenge.